CPR

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) consists of mouth-to-mouth respiration and chest compression. Before starting Adult CPR, call 9-1-1.  CPR should only be performed on a person who has no pulse and is not breathing.

If the victim is a child between the ages of 1 and 10, begin CPR right away and get someone else to make the call.

For Infant CPR go here.

In order to properly perform CPR, the victim must be on their back. 

  • CPR begins with two-handed chest compressions. Place the heel of one hand in the center of the victim’s chest, and place your other hand on top of it. Quickly deliver 30 chest pumps by pushing the chest down, about 2 inches deep, at a rate of 16 compressions every 10 seconds or 100 per minute.
  • It is normal to feel “pops” or “snaps” when you first begin chest compressions. Do not be concerned with these.  It is more important that you DO NOT STOP!
  • After pumping the chest 30 times, carefully tilt the victim’s head back, and lift their chin up to open the airway.
  • NEXT: Pinch the victim’s nose closed, and take in a normal breath.  Form a seal over the victim’s mouth with yours … and blow out your breath until you see their chest rise. If the victim’s chest does not rise, try opening the airway again by doing a finger sweep to check for obstructions. Wait one full second, then deliver a second breath.
  • Repeat the process of 2 breaths followed by 30 chest compressions until the victim regains consciousness, and begins to breathe on their own.  If the victim has a pulse, but is not breathing on their own, it is safe to cease chest compressions, and continue solely with mouth-to-mouth until medical help arrives.
  • If there is someone nearby, ask them for help.  One person can perform the breathing, while the other person delivers chest compressions.

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Severe Bleeding

Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging, describes the loss of blood from the circulatory system.

Bleeding can occur internally or externally, either through a natural opening such as the nose, ear, or mouth; or from a cut, scrape, or puncture to the skin.

Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of their total blood volume before being at risk for serious medical complication.

First Aid for a person suffering from severe blood loss is crucial, if you are alone with a person who is bleeding profusely, immediately:

  • Lie the person down.
  • Put on a pair of gloves if you have them.
  • Check to see if a limb or extremity is the source of the bleeding injury, and if the limb does not appear to be fractured or broken, raise the injured area above the level of the person’s heart.
  • Get the person to apply direct pressure to the wound with their hand or hands to stem the blood flow, and immediately call 911.  If the person cannot apply pressure themselves, do it for them. You may need to pull the edges of the wound together before applying any pressure.
  • If an object is noticeably imbedded in the wound, do not remove the object as this may increase bleeding. Instead, apply pressure around the object.
  • As soon as the bleeding is controlled, call 911.
  • While waiting for 911, continue to apply pressure to the injury but do not apply a tourniquet. If it is done incorrectly, it may lead to an unnecessary serious injury to or loss of the leg or arm. If blood begins to saturate the dressing, do not remove it. Instead, add fresh padding over the top. If the injury occurred at home, cover the wound with a dressing, using sterile pads and a bandage (if possible) to hold them firmly in place until help arrives.

If the victim goes into shock before help arrives, do your best to protect them from breathing obstructions.  If possible, turn them on their side and loosen any restrictive clothing around the airway.  Check their breathing and pulse frequently, and begin CPR if necessary.

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Choking

If a person is choking, quickly deliver 4 or 5 blows between the shoulder blades using the heel of your hand. If they are Still Choking, and the person is not pregnant or obese, begin abdominal thrusts:

  • Stand behind the person and wrap your arms around their waist.
  • Place your clenched fist just above the person’s navel. Grab your fist with your other hand, and quickly pull inward and upward.
  • Continue alternate cycles of 5 back blows followed by 5 abdominal thrusts until the object is coughed up or the person starts to breathe or cough.
  • Do not attempt to take the object out of the person’s mouth unless you can see it. Quickly do a finger sweep only if you can see the object in the person’s mouth.

If the person is obese or pregnant, begin “high” abdominal thrusts:

  • Stand behind the person, wrap your arms them, and position your hands at the base of the breast bone.
  • Quickly pull inward and upward.
  • Repeat until the object is dislodged.

If the obstruction comes out, but the person is not breathing or if the person becomes unconscious:  Give CPR, if Necessary

  • For a child, press CPRK.  For an adult, press CPRA.

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CPR-Adult

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation consists of mouth-to-mouth respiration and chest compression. Before starting Adult CPR , call 9-1-1.  If the unconscious victim is a child between the ages of 1 and 10, begin CPR right away and get someone else to make the call.  If this is an infant, refer to CPR-Infant.

In order to properly perform CPR, the victim must be on their back. 

CPR begins with two-handed chest compressions. Place the heel of one hand in the center of the victim’s chest, and place your other hand on top of it. Quickly deliver 30 chest pumps by pushing the chest down, about 2 inches deep, at a rate of 16 compressions every 10 seconds, or 100 compressions per minute.

It is normal to feel “pops” or “snaps” when you first begin chest compressions. Do not be concerned with these.  It is more important that you DO NOT STOP!

After pumping the chest 30 times, carefully tilt the victim’s head back, and lift their chin up to open the airway.

NEXT: Pinch the victim’s nose closed, and take in a normal breath.  Form a seal over the victim’s mouth with yours … and blow out your breath until you see their chest rise. If the victim’s chest does not rise, try opening the airway again by doing a finger sweep to check for obstructions. Wait one full second, then deliver a second breath.

Repeat the process of 2 breaths followed by 30 chest compressions until the victim regains consciousness, and begins to breathe on their own.  If the victim has a pulse, but is not breathing on their own, it is safe to cease chest compressions, and continue solely with mouth-to-mouth until medical help arrives.

If there is someone nearby, ask them for help.  One person can perform the breathing, while the other person delivers chest compressions.

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